Sometimes, perhaps owing to bad parchment, or bad ink, or being kept in poor conditions, flaking gets REALLY BAD:
Normally, this would signal Time To Buy A New Torah. But this congregation is emotionally attached to this one, and is willing to pay to have it fixed, thus:
It's not an economical decision; it's more than likely that they'll all fall off again a few years from now, and the cost of repair is easily as much as the cost of buying a second-hand sefer. If your sefer looks like this, start shopping for a replacement.
Anyway, this is what I'm doing at the moment.
And for good measure, an example of what happens on Bad Ink Days. The shin in the middle of the third row started out like a normal sort of shin, just a bit blobby, like the one in the top row...but then it spread itself out and decided not to be a shin any more. I shall fix it by scraping the letter off with a scalpel and rewriting.